Friday, January 15, 2010

Setting up PuTTY to use public keys for authentication

I've looked on the internet for a quick step-by-step guide how to get PuTTY to use public key authentication with OpenSSH daemon and it took me some time to figure. I'm posting these instructions in case anybody else has the same needs.


Make sure that your OpenSSH configuration (usually /etc/ssh/sshd_config) contains the following line:

PubkeyAuthentication yes

In my case (CentOS 5.4) it was disabled by default.

Also, you would need the full PuTTY suite which can be downloaded form here (get

Generating the key

This is a way to generate the key with Putty. Alternatively you can generate it with OpenSSH's ssh-keygen tool and convert it to PuTTY format.

  2. In the parameters box at the bottom of the window, choose type of key 'SSH-2 RSA', set the bit size to 2048.
  3. Click the Generate button, move the mouse over the blank area until the progres bar fills up.
  4. Enter your notes in the comment line (this is displayed to you when you use the key, you can change later).
  5. Enter key-phrase, make it long and complex, write it down in a secure place or print it and hide it somewhere in your freezer.
  6. Save the private key (*.ppk) in a reasonably secure filesystem location. Even if somebody gets access to your private key, they will still need your passphrase to use it.
  7. Copy the text from the text box under the 'Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file:' and paste it on one line in a new file called authorized_keys (we'll use that later). The file should contain a single line terminated by Unix-style new-line and there shall not be an empty line after it.

Associating the key with your Unix account

  1. Login to your unix account
  2. Create a .ssh directory under your home if it does not exist
  3. Copy the authorized_keys file there
  4. Do chmod 700 ~/.ssh ; chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

This needs to be done for each machine you are connecting to. In this case it helps if your homw is NFS mounted.

Using the key directly

  1. Start PuTTY
  2. Specify user@host in the 'Session > Host Name' field.
  3. Specify the path to your private key file in the 'Connection > SSH > Auth > Private key file' box.
  4. Click the 'Open' button at the bottom of the PuTTY settings dialog.
  5. When prompted, enter your private-key pass-phrase and you will be logged in without entering your Unix password

Setting up Pageant to cache the decrypted private key

Let's look what we have done. The good thing is that our password does not travel over the wire and is not susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. The bad thing is that we used to enter the short and easy password of our Unix account, while now we have to enter the long and difficult pass-phrase of our key every time we establish a new Unix connection. In order to avoid this, we can use PuTTY Pageant which is SSH authentication agent (Unix equivalent is ssh-agent)

  1. Start PAGEANT.EXE
  2. Click on the computer-with-hat icon in your system tray.
  3. Choose the Add Key option and pick your private key (*.ppk)
  4. Enter your pass-phrase
  5. Close the pageant dialog

From now on, when establishing SSH session Putty will try to use the decrypted key from Pageant first and then fall back to password auth if none of the keys match.

You can create a shortcut, starting Pageant and passing the paths to your keys as arguments. This will start Pageant and load the keys in one step, but you will still need to specify the pass-phrase every time you do this (typically after system restart).

Keep in mind that Pageant holds the private key in memory unencrypted. If anybody captures a heap dump of the process, they can get access to your private key without knowing the pass-phrase. That's why, you might want to stop the Pageant if you are not using it for a long time or if you shae the machine in multi-user environment.

If using Pageant, you might also check the Putty option 'Connection > SSH > Auth agent forwarding', which will allow you to use your key from the remote machine on which you are logged on.

How fast an SSD drive do you need

If you need Intel X25-E 32G SSD for 70% of the cheapest listed price (shipping extra), please let me know.

For a long time I thaught that the bottleneck of all builds was the HDD, so when I got my new notebook, the first thing I did was to add a spiffy extra Intel X25-E SSD hard drive to it. As I expected, the builds went much faster. To my surprise, the HDD throughput stayed fairly low during the build, which suggested that the benefit of SSD drives kicks in early and buying higher grade drives doesn't make much difference as the bottleneck moves to the CPU quite quickly. All this makes sense, considering that a typical application has hundreds to thousands of files and the HDD spends a lot of its time seeking rather than reading.

When I cleared the IntelliJ IDEA caches and opened the IDEA Community project (total 900MB, 66k files), during the indexing, one of the cores stayed pegged, the HDD read throughput did not exceed 4mb/s for 4 mins then for 1 minute it rose to top 25mb/s, avg I guess around 15mb/s. The write never exceeded 10mb/s, and for most part it was bellow 4mb/s, the last minute was between 5 and 7mb/s.

During initial compilation, the 2 cores of the CPU (2.53GHz T9400) were quite busy, staying above 80% all the time, the disk utilization during compilation stayed less than 4mb/sec with the ocasional peaks at 6mb/sec. The write peaks were 5mb/sec, for the most time bellow 1mb/sec.

At the end of the compilation, the index update took 50 seconds, with average read throughput ~10mb/s, peaking at 30.5mb/s, the write peaked at 7mb/sec. During that time the CPU utilization dropped around 50%, which only shows that IDEA's indexing is not using both CPUs.

The bottomline is - it's not worth byuing expensive SSDs for consumer usage - cheaper ones are just as good for the average home and software development workflow. Most of the applications do not involve transferring huge volumes of data and the slowness of the spinning-platter HDDs is mostly because of seek times and fragmentation. Expensive SDDs are warranted if you are working extensively with media files or are processing huge amounts of data on the disk.

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